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A Glossary of Happiness, Health & Wellbeing
Written by Mark Millard   

A work in progress...


Acedia. A gradual withdrawl into isolation or indifference, cutting down activities & cutting off contacts, sometimes an early sign of depression.

Affective Forecasting. Our ability to predict how future events will make us feel, for example how much happier we'd be if we had more money or how upset we'd be if we lost a friend. Mostly we overestimate the intensity and the duration of how life's ups and downs will actually affect us, the effects are usually neither as strong nor as long lasting as we expect. Which helps us on the downs and keeps us interested on the ups.

Amae. A Japanese term for an emotion which means to feel accepted, cared for and indulged by others.

Amygdala.A part of the forebrain specialised for emotional learning and responding, The amygdala tags incoming information with emotional labels such as like, dislike, fear, sadness, pleasure, joy etc and initiates the associated bodily changes. In depression and anxiety the amygdala becomes hyperactive.

Anhedonia. An inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable activities. A common sign of depression.

Apophenia. The experience of seeing meaningful patterns in meaningless data

Atychiphobia. The fear of failure, a self-limiting condition which can stop us achieving our full potential. When we avoid failing by not trying (unless you see not trying as a bigger form of failure)

Authentic Happiness. The happiness we feel when we get what we want, 'hey, I got the job!'. Synthetic Happiness The happiness we make when we don't get what we want, 'I'm glad I didn't the job because it probably wouldn't have worked out anyway'.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). The part of our nervous system that works autonomously, mostly regulating our internal organs - heart, lungs, stomach etc - and mostly outside our conscious control (as opposed to the Somatic system through which we consciously control our muscles & movements). The ANS is divided into 2 branches, the Sympathetic branch acts like an accelerator, speeds things up and regulates our fight or flight response. The Parasympathetic branch acts like a brake, slows things down and regulates our relaxation response. The two branches are constantly interacting and are activated by emotional triggers - when we sense a threat the Sympathetic system  automatically kicks in and prepares the body for action, conversely in a safe, secure environment the Parasympathetic system activates and we calm down and relax. Our wellbeing depends in part on an active balance and interplay between these two systems. For many this means learning how to activate and strengthen their relaxation response as an antidote to life's stresses and strains. One way to do this is through meditation - by deliberately focusing your attention on something pleasant (like a happy memory or a relaxing place), feeling your breathing slow and muscles relax and learning to induce a state of calm energy.

Autotelic Activities. Things we do just because we like to. Activities that absorb us and make us feel good, activities that are immediately and intrinsically rewarding to us


Benign Forgetting. Not recalling negative information

Brain.The human brain is made up of about 100 billion neurons plus trillions of support cells called glia.  The neurons communicate via tiny electrical impulses which travel at speeds up to 100 metres per second. A human brain weighs about 3lb (1.5kg) and is over 3 times as large as the brains of other mammals with a similar body size to our own.  This difference is largely due to the size of our frontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with conscious thinking, predicting, planning, decision making and control that has developed rapidly over the past 3 million years.  In evolutionary terms this slower, reasoning, more future oriented part of our brain is a relatively new addition and is less well developed and finely tuned than our older, faster, automatic, here-and-now, emotional systems. It may take us quite a while to add a row of numbers together but we can do things that are much more complicated like catch a ball in the blink of an eye with no effort at all. Our happiness, health and wellbeing depends on striking a positive balance between these two, at times opposing systems, satisfying the immediate demands of the here and now and also doing things that take us closer to our longer term goals.


Care farm. A farm where people with various mental & physical health problems can join in activities and work in the open air - growing produce, caring for livestock, working with machinery etc to help with their rehabilitation. Care farm work is available on prescription in some parts of the UK, following similar schemes in Holland & Norway.

Catastrophizing. A tendency to blow things out of proportion and make the worst out of a bad situation. An irrational form of thinking often brought on by strong negative emotions

Coaching (compared to therapy). In therapy you look for the underlying source of the problem to help the client fix it. In coaching you look for what is right with the person and work on how to enhance it. Seligman.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). A popular and comparatively effective form of psychotherapy especially in the treatment of depression. Stressful life events can trigger a torrent of automatic thoughts which are translated into emotions and lead to behaviours.  CBT helps people control their emotions and achieve more positive outcomes by developing more rational patterns of thinking. These are useful thinking skills for anyone to learn and develop, particularly people who are more prone to negative thoughts and emotions.

Coherence. Our sense that life makes sense, that it is meaningful, comprehensible and manageable

Computational Eudaimonics. The use of computer algorithms to increase happiness by helping us make better decisions, even suggesting new options.

Compulsive Behaviour. Recurrent patterns of action designed to re-create placid emotional states. In some extreme cases these repeated patterns of behaviour may disrupt other aspects of a person's life and be diagnosed as an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Contemplation. A prolonged period of conscious thought about a specific topic

The Copper Rule (CR). An ethical principle which states, behave towards others in the way they behave towards you. And, conversely, do not behave towards others in ways they do not behave towards you. See also The Golden Rule.

Core Affect. The default mood setting on a standard model homo sapiens, about a 7 or 8 out of 10 in response to the question, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole? A deep and stable mood state, which is usually set to slightly positive, sometimes referred to as the Positivity Offset.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Director of the Quality of Life Research Center (QLRC) at Claremont Graduate University and author of Flow an influential book about how activities enhance our sense of wellbeing. TED Talk


Diener, Ed. Smiley Professor of Psychology (yes, really) at the University of Illinois, President of IPPA (International Positive Psychology Association) and with over 190 papers to his name one of the leading wellbeing researchers. Pioneered the concept of Psychological Wealth

Dispositional Optimism. A general expectation that more good things than bad will happen

Dodo Bird Verdict. The hypothesis that all psychotherapies work the same way and the common components they share, such as the client - counsellor relationship, have more effect on the outcome than the specific form of therapy. An allusion to a race in Alice in Wonderland, after which the Dodo says 'everyone has won so all must have prizes'.

Dopamine. A neurotransmitter (chemical in the brain) that controls pleasure. The dopamine system in the brain activates when we are doing or thinking of doing a pleasurable activity and makes us want to do the things we enjoy.


Emotions - Primary Emotions. We are hardwired with the capacity to react quickly and automatically to major threats & opportunities with 6 primary emotions - happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness and anger.  These emotions produce changes in our body which help us deal with whatever triggered them. Primary emotions are fast, automatic, unthinking, instinctive, survivomatic type reactions to significant events

Emotions - Secondary Emotions. Are what we feel when we have time to think about the situation. Secondary emotions are modified, toned down versions of the primary ones, so our thoughts might modify our basic fear into anxiety, apprehension or caution. In English we have some 600 words to describe the richness of our emotional experiences. Secondary emotions are slower, considered more subtle responses to more complex events & situations

Emotions - Background Feelings. How we feel most of the time, when nothing much is going on, our natural, resting emotional state. The default setting for most people, most of the time is moderately positive, the so-called positivity offset.

Eudaimonia or eudaimonic happiness. A form of happiness that comes from fulfilling our potential, making an effort and doing something meaningful or worthwhile with our lives.  First proposed by Aristotle and taken up by the Stoics, it contrasts with thehedonic approach to happiness


Fearcasting. A tendency to forecast the future with fear

Ferguson, Will. Author of HappinessTM, a comic novel about what happens to the world when someone writes a self-help book that actually works.

Fiero. Pride in one's accomplishment, an Italian term for a pleasurable emotion with no direct equivalent in english

Focusing Illusion. Merely thinking about something causes you to exaggerate its importance - nothing in life matters quite as much as you think it does while you are thinking about it.

Forebrain. An area of the brain connected to the sense organs that is important for producing drives and emotions.

Frontal Cortex. An area of the brain associated with thinking, planning, decision making and control - including predicting whether you are likely to enjoy something or not


The Golden Rule (GR). Behave towards other people in ways you would like them to behave towards you. And, conversely, don't behave towards other people in ways you would not like them to behave towards you. The Golden Rule is an ancient ethical principle which occurs in many of the world's religions. See also the Copper Rule. 


Haidt, Jonathan. Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia and author of The Happiness Hypothesis, IMO one of the best general psychology books around. TED Talk

Happiness Formula.H = S + C + V, where: H is our actual level of happiness, S is our natural, genetic set point for happiness, C are our life circumstances & the things that happen to us and V are the things we do for ourselves and are under our voluntary control. The formula was devised by Martin Seligman to show that how much happiness we experience is determined by three things - our genes, our circumstances and what we do ourselves.

Studies of twins show that these factors contribute different amounts to our happiness. Our genes account for about half our happiness, life events & circumstances about 10% (we quickly adapt, to good & bad fortune) which means almost half our happiness is directly down to us and the things we do (& don't do).

Happiness Set Point. Some people are wired up to be happier than others. Each of us has our own natural, default or resting level of happiness which we tend to return to naturally, following periods of happiness or sadness. This point is not set in stone however, it fluctuates day to day and there are things we can do to shift it - short term and longer term - by varying the activities we engage in. We can learn to become happier and we can engage in activities which make us happy.

For example, small, pleasure boosting activities can quickly lift a bad mood. Activities that challenge or absorb us can distract or relieve us from negative emotions, and activities like meditation, physical exercise and training ourselves to think more positively can all have lasting, positive effects on our happiness & wellbeing

Nonetheless, if you're not naturally a super-happy person, trying to turn yourself into one is not likely to have the desired effect. Being true to your nature is more likely to bring peace & contentment, if not outright happiness.

Happiness Smoothing. From the Dilbert Blog. An inbuilt human tendency to 'do our bit' & make sure that whatever happiness there is gets spread around evenly - by cheering up those with too little and taking down those with too much, Robin Hood style.

Hebbes Rule. Neurons that fire together wire together. A theory about how we learn and remember, when groups of neurons persistently fire together they form stronger associations or engrams which represent the new learning or memory. This also describes a basic mechanism for neuroplasticity - that through conscious, deliberate acts of learning or practice we can, in some sense, change our brains by forming new sets of connections. Brain scans of Buddhist monks who have spent tens of thousands of hours in meditative practice show they have become extremely adept at activating the positive emotion areas of their brains - that through training they have developed their emotional brains in particularly positive ways. The evidence strongly suggests that through mental training such as meditation and cognitive therapy we can broaden and build the positive pathways in our brains - we can learn to become happier.

Hedonic Happiness.The pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. An approach to happiness first proposed by the Greek philosopher Aristippus, it contrasts with the eudaimonic approach

Hedonic Paradox. By pursuing happiness itself it moves further away, but by pursuing something else happiness comes closer.

Hedonic Treadmill. The tendency for pleasures to lose their power to please us, especially true of material purchases - the effect of the new car / TV / clothes etc quickly wears off (especially when the people next door buy a better one). Hence the idea of the treadmill - if we're into stuff we have to keep buying it because the effect of the stuff we've bought wears off. Not so true of experiential purchases, buying things to do rather than things to have.  In fact, experiences & experiential purchases may even enhance with age, as our memory has ways of improving them. As the old racer said 'the older I get the faster I was'.

An upside of the treadmill effect is that we also adapt quite quickly to unpleasant or painful events, so when bad things happen the negative effects also wear off over time.  See also Psychological Immune System

Heliotropism. The movement or growth of an organism towards the light

Helpers High. A phenomenon in which helping has as much, if not more, positive emotional effect on the helper as on the helpee

Hypothalamus. A part of the forebrain specialised to coordinate basic drives and motivations.  When stimulated in humans it produces feelings of wellbeing such as deep calm, curiosity, relief of anxiety and intense euphoria, as if you were doing something fantastic.


Imi Ola. A Hawaiian value meaning to create your best possible life


Life hacks. Tools, tips, tricks and techniques for solving everyday problems and getting things done.

Limerence. The first stages of intense, romantic love, a rollercoaster ride of emotions and infatuation, of which Freud said 'one is very crazy when in love'.


Mindfulness. A particular way of paying attention - on purpose, in the present moment and without judgement.

Money - does money make you happy? The short answer is 'not necessarily'. Everybody needs a basic income to survive but above that level (and it varies from country to country for example) there is a weak relationship between how much money a person has and how happy they are.  There is, however, a strong relationship between a person's happiness and how satisfied they are with whatever money they've got - the level of satisfaction matters much more than the amount of money.  Highly happy people are generally not richer than the rest, and very wealthy people are generally not much happier than anyone else either. People who win the lottery maybe happier for a few months but their happiness levels quite quickly return to what they were before the win.  How you spend money also affects your happiness. Spending selfishly or on consumer products that satisfy short-term gratification needs ultimately does less for your happiness than taking a longer-term perspective and investing in personally meaningful plans or projects that develop new skills and experiences or also benefit others. Does money make you happy? Not necessarily. Can it make you happy? Yes, and it depends more on what you do with it than how much you've got.

Mudita. Enjoying someone else's happiness or good fortune, a Buddhist concept, the opposite of envy.


Naches. Joy, especially the joy derived from children, a Yiddish term for a pleasurable emotion with no direct equivalent in english

Needs - Deficiency Needs. Such as hunger, thirst, loneliness & security, needs which can be satisfied by providing adequate amounts of food, water, companionship & safety. Once a deficiency need is satisfied it dies down

Needs - Growth Needs. Such as learning, personal development & mastery, needs which can only be satisfied by continuing development. Unlike a deficiency need, once a growth need is satisfied we raise our expectations

Negative Emotions. Such as fear, anger, disgust & sadness. Too much negative emotion is a recipe for illbeing. Negative emotions can capture our consciousness much more quickly and strongly than positive ones and often cause us to over react.

Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc). The most pleasure that life has to offer is an adequate supply of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Milkman & Sunderwirth. Part of the dopamine pathway, the nucleus accumbens is a pleasure center in the brain that plays a role in enjoyment, reward, laughter, fear, addiction and the placebo effect. Feelings of wellbeing, as well as the absence of anxiety & craving, depend on the supply of dopamine to the nucleus accumbens and activities that are pleasurable or rewarding increase this supply.


Otaku. A Japanese word for a person with an obsession

Opioids. Naturally occuring brain chemicals released by enjoyable activities that enhance our sense of pleasure,reduce our sense of pain and keep us focused on doing things we enjoy. (Opiates are the artificially made versions of these naturally occuring chemicals)


The Paradox of Happiness. To get happiness, forget about it.; then, with any luck, happiness will come as a by-product of pursuing meaningful activities & relationships

Pareto Principle (aka the 80:20 rule & the law of the Vital Few). The Pareto Principle states that, for many events, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.  This rule of thumb appears to hold true across many different domains, for example, fixing 20% of bugs may prevent 80% of software crashes, 80% of the world's wealth is owned by 20% of the population and 80% of our happiness hinges on 20% of the things we do.

Peak-End Rule. When remembering how good or bad a past event made us feel we tend not to look at the total amount of pleasure or pain we experienced but make an approximation based on how good or bad we felt at the peak and how good or bad we felt at the end. So when it comes to happiness we tend to go for things that have a high peak & a strong finish and tend to disregard the bits in between - we'll favour the flash fire over the slow burn, the fulsome rather than the fundamental.

Pleasant Activities Training. Doing things you enjoy more often. This deceptively simple and effective approach to wellbeing has been found to reduce depression and when applied to non-depressed people to significantly increase their happiness. So why don't we do things we enjoy more often if they make us happier?  At least part of the answer appears to be because we're more motivated to chase the things we want than do the things we like.  We're particularly prone to thinking that getting more stuff and status will make us happier, but this is often an illusion, when we get them they don't make us as happy as we expected, the gloss soon wears off and we set our sights on the next 'if only...' Our inbuilt preoccupation with chasing the things we want rather than doing the things we like is bound to make us dissatisfied, even if (perhaps especially if) it looks as though we have it all.

Pockets of Incompetence. Acknowledging we may not be good at particular things but otherwise seeing ourselves as competent in other areas

Positive Psychology.The science of optimal human functioning, of what makes people flourish and thrive. A branch of psychology that focuses on 'building what's strong' as opposed to 'fixing what's wrong'. Positive psychology addresses questions such as 'what makes people more happy?', rather than 'what make people less depressed?'. The basic premise of P2 is 'there's more to wellbeing than an absence of illbeing'

Positive Selective Attention. Noticing the positive and screening out the negative

Prayer. A direct address to a spiritual entity

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). An area of the brain just behind the forehead that determines our outlook on life and whether we respond positively or negatively to events & experiences. Brain imaging has revealed that the right hand side of the PFC is associated with negative, inhibiting, withdrawal emotions while the left hand side is associated with positive, outward looking, exploratory emotions. A person's natural temperament - optimistic, pessimistic, extroverted or introverted - is partly determined by which side of their PFC is the more active.

Psychological Immune System. A metaphor for the way our minds moderate our emotions and protect us from experiencing too much happiness or unhappiness. Over time and sometimes surprisingly quickly, our intense emotions (positive and negative) subside and balance is restored.

Our psychological immune system helps us adapt to life's ups & downs and keeps us on a sufficiently even keel, optimistic enough to act and realistic enough not to get too carried away. The term is used by Dan Gilbert in his book Stumbling on Happiness

Psychological Wealth. A concept of wealth that extends beyond material riches, emotional intelligence etc and is a measure of your true total net worth, including your attitudes to life, social support, spiritual development, material resources, health and the activities in which you engage.  The concept is put forward by Ed Deiner& Robert Biswas-Diener in their book  Happiness: unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth  

Psychological Wellbeing.Can be used to differentiate psychological from other forms of wellbeing e.g. physical, financial etc. Or may refer to a specific theory of psychological wellbeing developed by Carol Ryff & Corey Keyes of the University of Wisconsin - Madison which proposes that how healthy or well a person is psychologically speaking depends on how well they function in 6 key areas: Self Acceptance - evaluating yourself & your past positively; Personal Growth - a sense you are growing & progressing as a person; Purpose in Life - believing your life is purposeful & meaningful; Positive Relationships - having satisfying relationships with other people; Environmental Mastery - being able to manage and run your life effectively; Autonomy - being your own person


Relationships: 5 Main Relationship Types. Genetic relative, affinal relative, friend, neighbour, work colleague

Relay Parents. Mothers and fathers who spend more time with their children but less time with each other, parenting in shifts around their jobs.


Schadenfreude. Enjoying the misfortune or misery of another, especially if it seems appropriate.

Self Efficacy. Our belief in our own ability to reach our goals

Self: Remembering Self & Experiencing Self. 2 selves we use to monitor our wellbeing. Our experiencing or emotional self tells us how we're feeling in the moment.  Our remembering self tells us how we're doing over time.  So who has the greater wellbeing, the person who feels unhappy but says life is going well or the person who feels happy but says life is not going well?

Seligman, Martin. Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and a former President of the APA (American Psychology Association). Generally considered to be the founder of Positive Psychology and has done pioneering research into Character Strengths and Virtues, described in his bestselling book Authentic Happiness . TED Talk.

Serotonin. A neurotransmitter (chemical in the brain) that controls the balance between positive & negative emotions.  Deficiencies of serotonin are linked to a range of conditions, including depression, anxiety, irritability & anger, insomnia and seasonal affective disorder. Adequate supplies of serotonin promote feelings of wellbeing, calmness, relaxation, confidence & concentration.  SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) are a class drugs (of which Prozac is one) which increase serotonin levels and are used to treat depression, anxiety and phobias.

Seven Pillars of Wellbeing. Several spas and books say their approach is based on the Seven Pillars of Wellbeing, however their descriptions of the 7 pillars differ, including:
1 Water. 2 Sleep & Rest. 3 Living Food. 4 Exercise. 5 Detoxification. 6 Nutritional Supplements. 7 Freedom from stress.
1 Education. 2 Stress Management. 3 Spirituality. 4 Exercise. 5 Nutrition. 6 Connectedness. 7 Environment.
1 Beauty. 2 Life Balance. 3 Harmony. 4 Water. 5 Vitality. 6 Nature. 7 Nutrition

So far I haven't found a definitive account.

Social Groupings. Ethnographic research suggests we tend to form and belong to four types of social groups - different types & numbers of people we relate to different ways: Social Cliques about 5 people we turn to in times of trouble, Support Groups of 12-15, Bands of about 35 and Social Networks of about 150 people with whom we feel some emotional closeness.

Social Network Size: Human. 150. Aka Dunbar's Number. The natural size of a human social group is roughly about 150 people.  Given our brain size this is the maximum number of people we can have reasonably close, valued relationships with.  This number has been observed across a range of social groupings from the number of people we send Christmas Cards to, to the sizes of villages & settlements & companies of soldiers. Sometimes named after the British anthropologist Robin Dunbar who researched it.

Somatic Marker. An association between an activity or event and an emotional response which is stored in memory, the way we remember how things made us feel

Sturgeon's Law (aka Sturgeon's Revelation). 90% of everything is crud. Theodore Sturgeon, a Sci Fi writer, became increasingly frustrated by people using the worst examples sci fi writing to criticise the whole genre.  So he came up with the defence that '90% of everything is crud' anyway, so why expect Sci Fi to be any different?

Subjective Wellbeing (SWB). A more formal or technical term for wellbeing used to emphasise it's subjective nature. We each determine our own sense of wellbeing - the sense of wellbeing in a person's life & how happy they feel is determined by the person living it - 'I'm ok if I say I'm ok', or not, as the case may be.

Subjective Wellbeing Homeostasis. A theory that, like the way we keep our body temperature fairly constant, there are also mechanisms which regulate our sense of wellbeing and generally keep us in a slightly positive state of mind - about a 7 or 8 out of 10 in response to a question like 'how satisfied are you with your life as a whole?' . On the upside this inbuilt ability to 'bounce back' protects from the effects of painful or unpleasant events.  However it also seems to work the other way so when good things happen and we feel a 10 out of 10, the homeostatic system naturally brings us back to a more regular 7 or 8. One implication of this is that if we want to feel better than a 7 or 8 we may well have to work at it - either by doing more to make us feel good and/or by becoming better able to take the good from the things we do, e.g. by anticipating, savouring & recalling them.

Support Clique / Group.  The number of individuals people tend to turn to to seek advice, support or help in times of  emotional or financial distress. Most people have a support group of about 5 people.


Thigmotropism. The movement or growth of an organism in response to touch or contact

Time Affluence. The feeling that one has sufficient time to pursue activities that are personally meaningful, to reflect, to engage in leisure. Having, or making the time to do the things that you want to do

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). A form of medicine with a long history and of increasing interest in the west. It is based on three pillars: Acupuncture - physiological balance; Mental & Physical Exercise - physiological (mind-body) control; Nutrition - physiological energy


U Index, Unpleasantness Index. A measure of emotion, the amount of time you experience positive emotions minus the amount of time you experience negative emotions

The Universalizability Principle. A basic principle in moral reasoning that says that an act is good if everyone should, in similar circumstances, do the same act, without exception. Or, more generally, 'if one makes a moral judgement about a particular case then one must make the same moral judgement in other similar cases, unless there is a relevent difference between them (i.e. the cases are morally different in some way).


Wellbeing Formula.

Subjective Wellbeing = Life Satisfaction + How often you feel good - How often you feel bad

Sometimes abbreviated to:  SWB = LS + FPA - FNA

This is the formal definition of wellbeing used by most researchers, our sense of wellbeing is a mixture of our thoughts and feelings. Life satisfaction is how we think about our lives, whether things are going better or worse than we aimed or expected. We can think about our life overall (most people rate themselves about 7 out of 10, ie more positive than negative but could be better) or we can think about more specific aspects of our lives and grade ourselves accordingly (it is this definition & model of wellbeing which underpins our wellbeing questionnaire)

The frequency of positive and negative emotions is the part of our wellbeing we feel and the number of positive emotions or affects we experience compared to the number of negative ones matters. If we have 3 or more positives for every negative we're doing well and said to be flourishing, which appears to be true for about 20% of people. Around 2 positives to 1 negative is the norm for most people, while a minority of people are said to be languishing at or below 1 positive to 1 negative.

Many researchers use the this ratio of positive to negative emotions to measure happiness. And in many respects the frequency of the emotions matters more than the intensity, a little & often is the best recipe for happiness, especially if it includes a variety of positive emotions.

This is the definition that underpins the structure of our wellbeing questionnaire.

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